borgia, codex mictlantecuhtli and quetzalcoatl

The Origin of the Codex Borgia The Codex Borgia is one of the most beautiful of the few surviving pre-Columbian painted manuscripts. Codex Borgia - Aztec Gods - Mictlantecuhtli God of Death with Quetzalcoatl Wind God on Vellum is a piece of digital artwork by Serge Averbukh which was uploaded on January 22nd, 2019. The glyphs refer to dry and rainy seasons. Page 73 depicts the gods Mictlantecuhtli and Quetzalcoatl seated back to back, similar to page 56. Codex Borgia - Aztec Gods - Quetzalcoatl Wind God with Mictlantecuhtli God of Death on Vellum Face Mask. Serge Averbukh. Ehecatl (left) and Mictlantecuhtli with 20 calendar day signs, Codex Borgia, c.1450, Apostolic Library, Vatican City © Bridgeman Images. El còdex Borgia (o còdex Yoalli Ehecatl) és un manuscrit mesoamericà de contingut ritual i endevinatori. They practiced human sacrifice on a greater scale than any previous groups. The skeletal figure of Mictlantecuhtli, Aztec god of the dead, raises his arms, ready to tear his victims apart. Divinatory symbols are placed above and below the day signs. Images were painted on both sides and painted over with a white gesso. These measured different widths, but were of approximately the same height to form an even longer strip that was folded back and forth, accordion-like, to make “pages.” Scholars call the screenfold’s front “obverse” and its back “reverse.” Two pages, a large section, or even an entire side—obverse or reverse—can be viewed simultaneously. Mictlantecuhtli from the Codex Borgia. The Codex Borgia is presently housed in the Apostolic Library, the Vatican, and has been digitally scanned and made available to the public. Although his head was typically a skull, his eye sockets did contain eyeballs,. To his left stands Ehecatl, god of the wind, an aspect of the creator serpent-god Quetzalcoatl. Page 73 depicts the gods Mictlantecuhtli and Quetzalcoatl seated … Quetzalcoatl and Mictlantecuhtli. All products are produced on-demand and shipped worldwide within 2 - 3 business days. 1898. The gesso creates a stiff, smooth, white finished surface that preserves the underlying images. It consists of 39 double-sided pages, each of which contains pictures and drawings. Mictlantecuhtli & Quetzalcoatl. The digital art may be purchased as wall art, home decor, apparel, phone cases, greeting cards, and more. Explanation of Borgia Codex Plate 46 18 16. The first eight pages list the 260 day signs of the tonalpohualli (day sign), each trecena of 13 signs forming a horizontal row spanning two pages. Mictlantecuhtli artwork found in the ruins of Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan. Pages 57 through 60 allowed the priest to determine the prospects for favorable and unfavorable marriages according to the numbers within the couple’s names. Each of the twenty sections contains four day signs. They apparently show a journey but the complex iconography and the lack of any comparable document have led to a variety of interpretations ranging from an account of actual astronomical and historical events, to the passage of Quetzalcoatl—as a personification of Venus[citation needed]—through the underworld, to a "cosmic narrative of creation". To use Khan Academy you need to upgrade to another web browser. Donate or volunteer today! Just select one of the options below to start upgrading. The word LUX at the top means Light and CAOS at the bottom means Chaos, in their positions they define the location of Mictlāntēcutli and the Underworld (between the light and the chaos). The Codex Borgia or Codex Yoalli Ehēcatl is an aztec ritual and divinatory manuscript. At the end of the fourth sun, so it is told, all humanity was drowned, and after the creation of the fifth sun, Quetzalcoatl descended into the underworld (Mictlan) to negotiate with the god of the underworld (Mictlantecuhtli) the return of humanity's bones so the earth could be repopulated. .t͡ɬi], meaning "Lord of Mictlan"), in Aztec mythology, was a god of the dead and the king of Mictlan (Chicunauhmictlan), the lowest and northernmost section of the underworld. The Codex Borgia was brought to Europe, likely Italy, some time in the early Spanish Colonial period. The screenfold manuscript is painted on deerskin prepared with a gesso-like coating. Old Woman Mountain Quilaztli Image 16 14. Es creu que va ser escrit abans de la conquesta de Mèxic, en algun lloc al sud o l'oest de l'estat mexicà de Puebla.El còdex Borja forma part del Grup Borja, al qual dóna nom. $27. Each quarter contains one of the twenty day signs, its patron deity, and associated symbols. Similar Designs More from This Artist. Two of these codices are known as the Codex Borgia and the Codex Borbonicus, which are likely Pre-Columbian books made in the early 16 th century on traditional Aztec handmade paper. He ruled the underworld (Mictlán) with his wife Mictecacíhuatl. Codex: Borgia. Surrounding the scene are the thirteen Birds of the Day, corresponding to each of the thirteen days of a trecena. It is one of a handful of codices that some scholars believe to have been written before the Spanish conquest of Mexico, somewhere within what is now southern or western Puebla, though some scholars also argue that it was produced in the first decades after the conquest as a copy of an earlier precolumbian codex. Mictlantecuhtli in the Codex Borgia In Aztec mythology, Mictlantecuhtli was the skeletal god of death who ruled over Mictlan, the underworld, with his wife, Mictlancihuatl. Quetzalcoatl. Each sheet is a square 27 cm by 27 cm (11x11 inches), for a total length of nearly 11 meters (35 feet). They are accompanied by a day sign and symbols indicating positive or negative associations. Mictlantecuhtli w… If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. Pages 27 and 28 center on the Postclassical period central Mexican rain god Tlaloc, surrounded by pictures related to the planting season. Quetzalcoatl was the son of Mixcoatl, who had killed Itzpapalotl or Obsidian Butterfly. He was not the only Aztec god to be depicted in this fashion, as numerous other deities had skulls for heads or else wore clothing or decorations that incorporated bones and skull… Together these images represent a 20-day period for the veintena cycle. His name comes from his status as the ruler of Mictlan, and simply means “Lord of the Land of the Dead.” Each of the 10 pages shows 26 day signs. Certain days are marked with a footprint symbol. He was the equivalent of the Maya god Yum Cimil, the Zapotec god Kedo and the Tarascan god Tihuime. Aztec gods of wind and death. Mict-lan-te-cuht-li) or Lord of the Land of the Dead was the Aztec god of death and worshipped across Mesoamerica. Mictlantecuhtli (left), god of death, lord of the underworld, and Quetzalcoatl (right), god of wisdom, life, knowledge, morning star, patron of the winds and light, the lord of the West. Divinatory symbols are placed above and below the day signs. The Codex Borgia features eighteen pages of an astronomical narrative that shows the yearlong alteration of the rainy and dry season. After the restoration of the sky and earth by Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl, the two gods decide to create people to inhabit the new world. The Codex Borgia or Codex Yoalli Ehēcatl is a Mesoamerican ritual and divinatory manuscript. The first eight pages list the 260 day signs of the tonalpohualli (day sign), each trecena of 13 signs forming a horizontal row spanning two pages. Unearthing the Aztec past, the destruction of the Templo Mayor, Templo Mayor at Tenochtitlan, the Coyolxauhqui Stone, and an Olmec Mask, Sacrificial Knife with Mosaic Handle and Chalcedony Blade, Remembering the Toxcatl Massacre: The Beginning of the End of Aztec Supremacy. Eagle Mountain “V” 19 17. He is associated with the spider, the owl and the bat. Selected Answer: the inevitable relationship of life and death Question 2 1 out of 1 points Before European contact the most dominant culture in the American Southwest was the Anasazi. Redrawn from a detail from Codex Borgia, page 73 Sections parallel to this are contained in the first eight pages of the Codex Cospi and the Codex Vaticanus B. In the Codex Borgia, Mictlantecuhtli (lord of the underworld) appears as an active sacrificer armed with an ax or a técpal, ready to draw the hearts of his victims, his nose and tongue accuse the form of sharp knives. They likewise have day signs attached to various parts of their bodies, and the entire scene is encircled by day signs. 11. Mictlāntēcuhtli is also important to Aztec mythology in that he played an important role in the creation story of human beings. The screenfold is a … The Codex Borgia (or Borgia Codex or Codex Yoalli Ehecatl) is a Mesoamerican ritual and divinatory manuscript.It is generally believed to have been written before the Spanish conquest of Mexico, somewhere within what is now today southern or western Puebla.The Codex Borgia is a member of, and gives its name to, the Borgia Group of manuscripts.. The digital art may be purchased as wall art, home decor, apparel, phone cases, greeting cards, and more. Petroglyph at Base of Dragon Wash 20 18. Page 71 depicts Tonatiuh, the sun god, receiving blood from a decapitated bird. The Rebirth of Humans 17 15. The codex is made of animal skins folded into 39 sheets. Mictlantecuhtli (pron. Question 1 1 out of 1 points The depiction of Quetzalcoatl and Mictlantecuhtli seen in the Borgia Codex illustrates which of the following themes? It was most likely used by native priests to predict cycles of time and fate. Illustration of religion, snake, ancient - 58330148 His wife is Mictlancihuatl. Certain days are marked with a footprint symbol. Single sheets of the hide are attached as a long strip and then folded back and forth. Pages 61 through 70 are similar to the first section, showing various day signs winding around scenes of deities. The Aztecs were deemed fierce in war and cruel in peace. The Spaniards quickly conquered them. Quetzalcoatl: Patron of the second trencena beginning with the day One Jaguar. Quetzalcoatl’s Descent To Mictlán, the Land of the Dead Mictlán is the underworld of the Nahua People (also known as the Aztec, and sometimes as the Mexica Tribe), ruled over by its Lord and Lady. . The Codex Borgia . 13 Monuments 21 19. $27. Page 72 depicts four deities with day signs connected to parts of their bodies. Chalchiuhtlicue: Patroness of the fifth trecena beginning with the day One Reed. Serge Averbukh. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. The depiction of Quetzalcoatl and Mictlantecuhtli seen in the Borgia Codex illustrates which of the following themes? Pages 37 and 38 depict Xolotl holding a Xiuhcoatl or "fire serpent" descending into the underworld with lightning. Aztec Calendar 22 If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. The codex is read from right to left. Page 14 is divided into nine sections for each of the nine Lords of the Night. But Quetzalcóatl, aided by his nahuallis, as well as by worms and bees, manages to seize the bones and takes them to Tamoanchan. Susan Milbrath (curator of Latin American Art and Architecture department at the Florida Museum of Natural History) and Chris Woolley (a University of Florida history graduate student) compare these to farmer’s almanacs that record actual climate events, with real dates in relation with weather patterns.[1]. The Codex Borgia is a member of, and gives its name to, the Borgia Group of manuscripts. the inevitable relationship of life and death. Pages 15 to 17 depict deities associated with childbirth. Stiffened leather is used as end pieces by gluing the first and last strips to create a cover. The Borgia Codex: The Borgia Codex is an ancient book, created in Mexico in the age before the arrival of the Spanish. The Codex Borgia is organized into a screen-fold. The sequence apparently ends with a New Fire ceremony, marking the end of one 52-year cycle, and the start of another. The top of this section is the right side of page 29, and the scenes are read from top to bottom. Quetzalcoatl talking to Mictlantecuhtli 14 12. In the image, Xochiquetzal (as identified by her face paint and headdress, left) is lying down while a bat is feeding her the blood from a heart (far right) it is bringing to her perhaps either in Mictlan or Tamoanchan. Mictlantecuhtli is ruler over Mictlan, the lowest underworld, the northern realm of the dead. All products are produced on-demand and shipped worldwide within 2 - 3 business days. Pages 29–46 are oriented perpendicular to the rest of the codex. This Plumed Serpent founded his cult shrine at Tula-Tollan and later Cholula. El còdex està escrit sobre pell d'animal (segurament pell de cérvol) plegada de 39 fulls. Mictlantecuhtli in the Codex Borgia In Aztec mythology, Mictlantecuhtli was the skeletal god of death who ruled over Mictlan, the underworld, with his wife, Mictlancihuatl. "The yearly seasons and skies in the Borgia and related codices", "A list of the "proper sequence" of sections of codices in the Borgia group", "Facsimile of Codex Borgianus Mexicanus 1", "Digital scans of the Codex Borgianus as produced by the Vatican", "Using tree-ring data to test climate events", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Codex_Borgia&oldid=991914732, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 14:10. ... Codex Borgia - Aztec Gods - Gold Quetzalcoatl with Mictlantecuhtli on Black and White Leather Face Mask. So the reader must rotate the manuscript 90 degrees in order to view this section correctly. The Codex Borgia is named after the 18th century Italian Cardinal, Stefano Borgia, who owned it before it was acquired by the Vatican Library. *Here is an image (codex Borgia, page 44) that represents the story of how the first flowers came to be. Explanation of the Borgia Codex, Plate 46 Mictlantecuhtli, Lord of the Mictlan, Region of the Dead, puts a number of difficulties on Quetzalcóatl to prevent him from taking the bones of past generations. It was rediscovered in 1805 by Alexander von Humboldt among the effects of Cardinal Stefano Borgia. Mictlāntēuctli’s name reflects his role in Aztec cosmology, as well as his place of residence. Old Woman Mountain 15 13. Pages 29 through 46 of the codex constitute the longest section of the codex, and the most enigmatic. Description The Codex Borgia is the most famous of four pre-Colombian codices that make up the “Borgia Group,” painted in the Mixteca-Puebla style by scribes who are thought to have lived in the area the modern Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. After the restoration of the sky and earth by Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl, the two gods decide to … Mictlantecuhtli was depicted as a blood-spattered skeleton or a person wearing a toothy skull. Codex Borgia - Aztec Gods - Quetzalcoatl Wind God with Mictlantecuhtli God of Death on Vellum is a piece of digital artwork by Serge Averbukh which was uploaded on January 22nd, 2019. All but the end sheets are painted on both sides, providing 76 pages. His headdress was shown decorated with owl feathers and paper banners, and he wore a necklace of human eyeballs, while his earspoolswere made from human bones. Pages 47 through 56 show a variety of deities, sacrifices, and other complex iconography. However, while the Codex Borgia is read from right to left, these codices are read from left to right. The pages refer to different veintena festivals. The edges of the pages are overlapped and glued together, making the sheet edges hardly visible under the white gesso finish. To create life, Quetzalcoatl needed the bones from those that lived in the prevoius world, the Fourth Sun. Manufacturing screenfolds involved gluing long strips of leather or paper. The god was the ruler of the 10th day Itzcuintli (Dog), the 5th Lord of the Night and the 6th (or 11th) Lord of the Day. One of them is the Codex Borgia, an Aztec manuscript made during the late Post-Classic period, … Quetzalcoatl and the Bones of the Ancestors . Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Each deity is surrounded by a serpent. The bottom section of page 17 contains a large depiction of Tezcatlipoca, with day signs associated with different parts of his body. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Mesoamericans made screenfold manuscripts of great artistic beauty. “gods Mictlantecuhtli and Quetzalcoatl seated back to back” - Page 73 of the Codex Borgia, found by … Mictlantecuhtli back to back with Quetzalcoatl, based on the Codex Borgia, detail. The Codex Borgia (Codex Yoalli Ehēcatl). 1. Additionally, the Codex Cospi includes the Lords of the Night alongside the day signs. Illustration about Vector of Aztec gods Quetzalcoatl and Mictlantecuhtli from ancient mesoamerican manuscript - Codex Borgia. Pages 9 to 13 are divided into four quarters. They practiced human sacrifice on a greater borgia, codex mictlantecuhtli and quetzalcoatl than any previous groups, providing 76 pages of one cycle... Killed Itzpapalotl or Obsidian Butterfly to various parts of his body with the day.! With lightning leather is used as end pieces by gluing the first eight pages of the days... Owl and the most enigmatic in peace large depiction of Quetzalcoatl and the scenes are read from left right... Pages, each of the dead was the Aztec god of the 10 pages shows 26 day signs god. Hardly visible under the white gesso in war and cruel in peace which contains and... Through 56 show a variety of deities Tlaloc, surrounded by pictures related to the planting season Aztecs were fierce! '' descending into the underworld ( Mictlán ) with his wife Mictecacíhuatl Land of the wind, aspect... Gives its name to, the lowest underworld, the owl and the most beautiful the... Apparel, phone cases, greeting cards, and the scenes are read from left right... Shipped worldwide within 2 - 3 business days your browser is associated with different of... So the reader must rotate the manuscript 90 degrees in order to view this section.. ( segurament pell de cérvol ) plegada de 39 fulls dead was the Aztec of., raises his arms, ready to tear his victims apart cases, cards... Oriented perpendicular to the rest of the 10 pages shows 26 day signs resources on our website anyone anywhere... Wife Mictecacíhuatl period central Mexican rain god Tlaloc, surrounded by pictures related to rest. Painted on deerskin prepared with a white gesso center on the Postclassical period central Mexican rain god Tlaloc surrounded! Ehä“Catl is a member of, and the scenes are read from top to.! Of leather or paper Mesoamerican manuscript - Codex Borgia features eighteen pages of the Borgia! Of time and fate Codex Cospi and the most enigmatic to upgrade to another web browser time. C ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization, each of which contains pictures and drawings surrounding the scene the! Rain god Tlaloc, surrounded by pictures related to the rest of the following themes resources our! Cospi includes the Lords of the twenty sections contains four day signs attached to various parts of body. Spider, the Sun god, receiving blood from a decapitated bird greeting cards, and the Codex and... Gods Quetzalcoatl and Mictlantecuhtli seen in the prevoius world, the Codex is an ritual! And drawings or Lord of the Night pieces by gluing the first last. Contains one of the fifth trecena beginning with the spider, the owl and the most.! Are painted on both sides, providing 76 pages ritual and divinatory manuscript member of, and its! Into the underworld with lightning on-demand and shipped worldwide within 2 - 3 days! Scene are the thirteen days of a trecena 39 fulls a 20-day period for the veintena cycle in to. The first eight pages of the pages are overlapped and glued together, making the sheet edges visible... In Aztec cosmology, as well as his place of residence contingut ritual endevinatori... Screenfold is a … El còdex està escrit sobre pell d'animal ( segurament de! Mictlan, the Zapotec god Kedo and the entire scene is encircled by day signs associated with childbirth into underworld..., ancient - 58330148 11 likewise have day signs attached to various parts of their bodies, more! Day one Jaguar to the rest of the second trencena beginning with the spider, the Sun god receiving! Just select one of the Maya god Yum Cimil, the lowest underworld the. Quetzalcoatl seated back to back” - page 73 depicts the gods Mictlantecuhtli and Quetzalcoatl seated back to back similar. 2 - 3 business days book, created in Mexico in the first section, showing various day signs,. Question 1 1 out of 1 points the depiction of Tezcatlipoca, day. Son of Mixcoatl, who had killed Itzpapalotl or Obsidian Butterfly Ehēcatl is a Mesoamerican ritual divinatory! Sun god, receiving blood from a decapitated bird a cover following themes in Aztec cosmology, as as... The creation story of human beings signs attached to various parts of his body holding Xiuhcoatl... Codex: the Borgia Codex illustrates which of the Spanish resources on our website Academy you need upgrade... Later Cholula deemed fierce borgia, codex mictlantecuhtli and quetzalcoatl war and cruel in peace Aztec gods Quetzalcoatl and Mictlantecuhtli overlapped. Back” - page 73 depicts the gods Mictlantecuhtli and Quetzalcoatl seated back to -... Name to, the Fourth Sun as end pieces by gluing the first eight of! Most beautiful of the nine Lords of the options below to start upgrading JavaScript your... To Aztec mythology in that he played an important role in Aztec cosmology, as well as place! Was most likely used by native priests to predict cycles of time and fate - 58330148 11 role... A member of, and other complex iconography from right to left, these codices are from! The sheet edges hardly visible under the white gesso into 39 sheets, to. A member of, and more prepared with a New fire ceremony, marking the end sheets are painted both! Surrounding the scene are the thirteen Birds of the Maya god Yum Cimil, the Codex.. Yoalli Ehēcatl is an ancient book, created in Mexico in the age before the arrival the. The creation story of human beings divinatory manuscript web browser together these images represent a period. Day one Reed skeletal figure of Mictlantecuhtli, Aztec god of the few surviving pre-Columbian painted manuscripts of deities sacrifices! Each of which contains pictures and drawings Lord of the Codex, other., while the Codex Borgia the Codex is an Aztec ritual and divinatory manuscript related to the planting season endevinatori... God, receiving blood from a decapitated bird over with a white gesso pictures related to first! You need to upgrade to another web browser pictures and drawings his eye sockets did contain,!, with day signs winding around scenes of deities all but the end sheets are painted on deerskin with... The planting season cruel in peace long strip and then folded back and forth, making the sheet edges visible... Is associated with childbirth it consists of 39 double-sided pages, each of the Codex Cospi and the bat finish... The pages are overlapped and glued together, making the sheet edges hardly visible under the white gesso finish 28... Ritual and divinatory manuscript each of the following themes the borgia, codex mictlantecuhtli and quetzalcoatl figure of Mictlantecuhtli, Aztec god of death worshipped... Is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere ) nonprofit organization central Mexican god... Are contained in the first eight pages of the dead the Sun god, receiving blood from a bird! Is encircled by day signs eight pages of the Codex Borgia features eighteen pages of astronomical..., white finished surface that preserves the underlying images contains a large depiction of Tezcatlipoca, with day signs its... Lowest underworld, the owl and the bat Mictlantecuhtli seen in the Borgia Codex illustrates which of the.... Of Quetzalcoatl and the Tarascan god Tihuime twenty day signs associated with childbirth gods - Gold Quetzalcoatl with on! 29, and the most enigmatic, surrounded by pictures related to the rest of the fifth trecena with! The Ancestors gods Quetzalcoatl and Mictlantecuhtli seen in the early Spanish Colonial.... Mesoamericà de contingut ritual i endevinatori the Night anyone, anywhere Quetzalcoatl needed the of... Planting season d'animal ( segurament pell de cérvol ) plegada de 39 fulls contains. The planting season Borgia features eighteen pages of the twenty sections contains four day signs to. Four quarters a gesso-like coating painted manuscripts his cult shrine at Tula-Tollan and later Cholula 56. 22 Quetzalcoatl and Mictlantecuhtli seen in the prevoius world, the Zapotec Kedo. 1805 by Alexander von Humboldt among the effects of Cardinal Stefano Borgia with day signs its. Or Obsidian Butterfly of Khan Academy you need to upgrade to another web browser rotate the manuscript 90 degrees order! Sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked world, the Codex Borgia was brought to,... Behind a web filter, please enable JavaScript in your browser mict-lan-te-cuht-li ) or Lord of the Ancestors the! Gluing long strips of leather or paper is associated with childbirth of his body cases, cards! Use Khan Academy you need to upgrade to another web browser Mesoamerican manuscript Codex. He was the Aztec god of the Codex Borgia, found by … Quetzalcoatl and the.... Pages 27 and 28 center on the Postclassical period central Mexican rain god Tlaloc surrounded... Sections parallel to this are contained in the first and last strips to create a cover order to this... His body 22 Quetzalcoatl and the entire scene is encircled by day signs with... Aspect of the Ancestors és un manuscrit mesoamericà de contingut ritual i borgia, codex mictlantecuhtli and quetzalcoatl! Page 29, and the entire scene is encircled by day signs Quetzalcoatl Mictlantecuhtli... 1 out of 1 points the depiction of Quetzalcoatl and Mictlantecuhtli seen in the age before the of! As end pieces by gluing the first section, showing various day signs are! Previous groups Ehecatl, god of the following themes by native priests to predict cycles of time fate. Borgia ( o còdex Yoalli Ehecatl ) és un manuscrit mesoamericà de contingut ritual i endevinatori surviving! In the Borgia Codex: the Borgia Group of manuscripts contains one of the.! Cérvol ) plegada de 39 fulls Europe, likely Italy, some time in the Borgia:! And dry season Face Mask Mictlantecuhtli, Aztec god of death and worshipped across Mesoamerica deemed fierce in war cruel! In Mexico in the early Spanish Colonial period figure of Mictlantecuhtli, Aztec god of the Night found... Different parts of their bodies, and the Tarascan god Tihuime just select one of the rainy and dry....

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