Pope Julius II (Latin: Iulius Secundus; December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), originally Giuliano Della Rovere, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 217th Pope from 1503 until his death in 1513. , Julius used his influence to reconcile two powerful Roman families, the Orsini and Colonna. He became an open partisan of the French and Venice, and accepted their goal, the destruction of the Sforza hold on Milan. He was a friend and patron of Bramante and Raphael, and a patron of Michelangelo. England joined it soon after, followed by the Swiss Cantons and the Holy Roman Empire, forming a superior force that subjugated the French in the bloody battle of Ravenna in 1512. The French were preparing new campaigns to reconquer Milan, and Julius II confessed to a Venetian ambassador a plan to invest his counselor Luigi d'Aragona with the kingdom of Naples in order to end Spanish presence in the south. When Cesare Borgia passed through southern France in October 1498 on his way to meet King Louis XII for his investiture as Duke of Valentinois, he stopped in Avignon and was magnificently entertained by Cardinal della Rovere. Even then, he could be dispensed. Brosch, p. 88. He seemed less enthused by theology; rather, Paul Strathern argues, his imagined heroes were military leaders such as Frederic Colonna. However, he also began the demolition of the old St. Peter's Basilica, which had stood for more than 1,100 years. He is very historically significant in papal history and this, therefore, makes it one of his favorite items in the entire Collection. He still continued to hear masses, visits churches, and address audiences, but after becoming bed-ridden during Christmas, he made arrangements for his funeral. Julius charged Michelangelo with painting the famous ceiling frescoes of the Sistine Chapel, as well as the pope’s own tombstone, and Raphael with decorating the stanzas in the Vatican Palace. Pope was born on December 5, 1443 in Vatican..Pope is one of the famous and trending celeb who is popular for being a Celebrity.  His proposals for S. Peter's, however, were not accepted despite what he believed to be a promise, and he retired in anger to Florence.. This portrait of the careworn Pope Julius II (1443–1513) is usually dated to the one-and-a-half-year period during which he wore a beard.  On Palm Sunday, 20 March, Cardinal della Rovere, concealing his activities from his principal rival, Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI), rode out of Rome and took ship at Ostia, intending to head for Genoa and Avignon to prepare to wage war between the Church and the King of Naples, Ferdinand I (Ferrante). He was instrumental in the war that broke out between the pope and King Ferrante of Naples, which resulted in the execution of revolting barons and Innocent VIII's papacy being discredited.  His benefices were restored to him after an apparent reconciliation with the Pope in August 1498. Some twenty years later, when Henry was attempting to wed Anne Boleyn (since his son by Catherine of Aragon survived only a few days, and two of her sons were stillborn, and therefore he had no male heir), he sought to have his marriage annulled, claiming that the dispensation of Pope Julius should never have been issued. This was directed against King Louis XII..  With a campaign in 1506, he personally led an army to Perugia and Bologna, freeing the two papal cities from their despots, Giampolo Baglioni and Giovanni II Bentivoglio. Giovanni Berthelet. , On 31 January 1483 Cardinal della Rovere was promoted suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia, in succession to Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville who had died on 22 January. "Giuliano, whom the popular voice seemed to indicate as the only possible pope, was as unscrupulous as any of his colleagues in the means which he employed. , In the Conclave of 1492, following the death of Innocent VIII, Cardinal della Rovere was supported for election by both King Charles VIII of France and by Charles' enemy King Ferrante of Naples. He returned on 8 April 1488, and again took up his residence in the Palazzo Colonna next to the Basilica of the XII Apostles. He reached Paris in September, and finally, on 20 December 1480, Louis gave orders that Balue be handed over to the Archpriest of Loudun, who had been commissioned by the Legate to receive him in the name of the Pope. The principal complaints of the barons were the heavy taxation imposed by Ferdinand to finance his war against the Saracens, who had occupied Bari in 1480; and the vigorous efforts of Ferrante to centralize the administrative apparatus of the kingdom, moving it away from a feudal to a bureaucratic system. His papacy was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, and patronage for the arts—he commissioned the destruction and rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica, plus Michelangelo 's decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Having achieved this goal, he formed an anti-French "Holy League" with Venice following the defeat of the latter at the Battle of Agnadello.  Meanwhile, the French army crossed the Alps and captured Alessandria in Piedmont. After the ceremonies of the election of Pope Innocent were completed, the cardinals were dismissed to their own homes, but Cardinal della Rovere accompanied the new Pope to the Vatican Palace and was the only one to remain with him. Indulgences (which remit the temporal effects of sins that have already been forgiven) involve the person receiving the indulgence doing some sort of good work, like donating to a charitable cause. Della Rovere, who was trying to repair his relations with the House of Borgia, was also involved in another clause of the treaty, the marriage between Cesare Borgia and Carlotta, the daughter of the King of Naples, who had been brought up at the French Court. The chief task of his pontificate he saw in the firm establishment and the extension of the temporal power. Having established the ideal position of pope and prince, it remains to be seen which Julius II is more rightly called. He grew it in 1510 as a token of mortification while recovering from a serious illness brought on by the loss of Bologna to the French, and vowed not to shave it off until French troops had been expelled from Italy, which happened in 1512. Pope Julius II (Italian: Papa Giulio II; Latin: Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. 10-11 (with a defective chronology). Peace was restored in 1487, but Innocent VIII's papacy was discredited. His remains were laid alongside his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV, but following the Sack of Rome in 1527, they were moved to St. Peter's Basilica. Despite the fact that the so-called "Tomb of Julius" by Michelangelo is in San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome, Julius is in fact buried in the Vatican. Pope Julius II was born as Giuliano della Rovere Albisola on December 5, 1443, in the Albisola near Savona in the Republic of Genoa to Raffaelo della Rovere and Theodora Manerola. In his early years as Pope, Julius II removed the Borjas from power and exiled them to Spain. In the spring of 1509, the Republic of Venice was placed under an interdict by Julius, In May 1509 Julius sent troops to fight against the Venetians who had occupied parts of the Romagna, winning back the Papal States in a decisive battle near Cremona. Julius had seemingly restored fortuna or control by exercising his manly vertu, just as Machiavelli wrote. , On 23 March 1486, the pope sent Giuliano as Papal Legate to the Court of King Charles VIII of France to ask for help. [b] Among other things, Julius wanted possession of Venetian Romagna; Emperor Maximilian I wanted Friuli and Veneto; Louis XII wanted Cremona, and Ferdinand II desired the Apulian ports. The King made several demands of Pope Alexander, one of which was that the Castel S. Angelo be turned over to French forces. A simple marble tombstone marks the site. All paintings made of the Borgias or for them must be covered over with black crepe. , In 1485 Pope Innocent and Cardinal della Rovere (as the Pope's new principal advisor) decided to involve themselves in the political affairs of the Kingdom of Naples, in what was called the Conspiracy of the Barons. 101-103. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar.  Erasmus also impropriated sexual misconduct in his 1514 dialogues "Julius Excluded from Heaven"; a theme picked up in the denunciation made at the conciliabulum of Pisa. Della Rovere, jealous and angry, hated Borgia for being elected over him.  Julius hired Swiss mercenaries to fight against the French in Milan in May 1512.. The barons seized L'Aquila and appealed to the Pope for assistance as their feudal overlord. Pastor, VI, pp. , Julius planned to call for a crusade against the Ottoman Empire in order to retake Constantinople, but died before making official announcements. Pope Julius II, who was better known as the 'Fearsome Pope' to his colleagues and as the 'Warrior Pope' to common people, was the head of the Roman Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to 1513.  In the third plenary session, on 3 December 1512, Julius attended, though he was ill; but he wanted to witness and receive the formal adhesion of Emperor Maximilian to the Lateran Council and his repudiation of the Conciliabulum Pisanum. Julius II was described by Machiavelli in his works as the ideal prince.  During the War of the Holy League, alliances kept changing: in 1510 Venice and France switched places, and by 1513, Venice had joined France. Neither the King of France nor the Holy Roman Emperor was satisfied with merely effecting the purposes of the Pope; the latter found it necessary to enter into an arrangement with the Venetians to defend himself from those who immediately before had been his allies. Here are the other artifacts connected to Pope Julius II. Julius was not the first pope to have fathered children before being elevated to high office, and had a daughter born to Lucrezia Normanni in 1483 – after he had been made a cardinal. His confrontational style inevitably created enemies and sodomy was the "common currency of insult and innuendo". The Venetians regained their territories lost to France, and the Papal States annexed Parma and Modena. He had four siblings: Bartolomeo, later Bishop of Ferrara; Leonardo; Giovanni, later Prefect of the City of Rome and Prince of Sorea and Senigallia; and Lucina, mother of Cardinal Sisto Gara della Rovere. , Della Rovere, as a young man, showed traits of being rough, coarse and given to bad language. The Bishop of Como, Scaramuccia Trivulzio, then read from the pulpit a bull of Pope Julius, Si summus rerum, dated that very day and containing within its text the complete bull of 14 January 1505, Cum tam divino. He suffered from severe fever, the causes of which could not be diagnosed, and died on February 21, 1513, following which Paris de Grassis conducted his funeral that evening. AKA Giuliano della Rovere. Sitter in 1 portrait. In 1484 Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere had begun negotiations to persuade Marquis Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua to allow Andrea Mantegna to come to Rome, which finally bore fruit in 1488; Mantegna was given the commission to decorate the chapel of the Belvedere for Pope Innocent VIII, on which he spent two years.. His name and memory must be forgotten.  The Borgia Apartments were turned to other uses. Early in his papacy, Julius decided to revive the plan for replacing the dilapidated Constantinian basilica of St. Peter's. "per vendicarsi et diceva ... anco fuora scazato el re Ludovico Franza d'Italia. Pope Julius IV born as Claudio Atillio Ciano; (born December 17, 1936, aged 77) is the 265th Pope of the Fabrian Catholic Church, a position also holding the roles …  On 3 January 1503, Cardinal Orsini was arrested and sent to the Castel S. Angelo; on 22 February he died there, poisoned on orders of Alexander VI..  On 28 June the Pope sent back to Naples the token gift of a palfrey which symbolized the King of Naples' submission and demanded the full feudal submission of the Kingdom of Naples to the Roman Church according to long-standing tradition. When Swiss mercenaries came to the Pope's aid, the French army withdrew across the Alps into Savoy in 1512.  Such accusations were made to discredit him, but perhaps in so doing his accusers were exploiting a generally "perceived weakness".  , In addition to an active military policy, the new pope personally led troops into battle on at least two occasions, the first to expel Giovanni Bentivoglio from Bologna (17 August 1506 – 23 March 1507), which was achieved successfully with the assistance of the Duchy of Urbino. During the late 1490s, he became more closely acquainted with Cardinal de’ Medici and his cousin Giulio de’ Medici, both of whom would later become Pope, (i.e. " Nonetheless, he continued his restless activities, including Masses, visits to churches, and audiences. They are listed in chronological order within each section. Paul Maria Baumgarten, in: W.R.Albury, Castiglione's Francescopaedia: Pope Julius II and Francesco Maria Della Rovere in The Book of the Courtier, Encyclopædia Britannica (2003) pp.648-649.  This is often presented in traditional historiography as the moment in which Renaissance Italy came the closest to unification after the end of the Italic League of the 15th century. Pastor, VI, pp. Giuliano held the archdiocese until his later election to the papacy. He also warned King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain that Alexander was intriguing with the French, which brought an immediate visit of a Spanish ambassador to the Pope.  Julius relied upon Guidobaldo's help to raise his nephew and heir Francesco Maria della Rovere; the intricate web of nepotism helped secure the Italian Papacy. Mansi, XXXII, pp. His papal name was not in honor of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar, and he acted more like a warrior who focused on re-establishing the Pontifical States and delivering Italy from its subjection to France.  On 20 July 1502, Cardinal Giovanni Battista Ferrari died in his rooms at the Vatican Palace; he had been poisoned, and his property was claimed by the Borgia. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/pope-julius-ii-8285.php, The Hottest Male Celebrities With The Best Abs. The second was an attempt to recover Ferrara for the Papal States (1 September 1510 – 29 June 1512). Despite being ill, he attended two sessions of the council, primarily to receive the formal adhesion of Emperor Maximilian to the Lateran Council, which was one of his greatest triumphs. Ferdinand of Spain now recognized Naples as a papal fief, invested in 1511, and therefore Julius II now regarded France as the main foreign power in the Italian peninsula hostile to Papal interests. ", Whereupon Julius entered into another Holy League of 1511: in alliance with Ferdinand II of Aragon and the Venetians he conspired against the Gallican liberties. Giuliano was an altar boy of his uncle Pope Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere). " Indeed, his election on 1 November 1503 took only a few hours, and the only two votes he did not receive were his own and the one of Georges d'Amboise, his most vigorous opponent and the favourite of the French monarchy.  The real stimulus came from a false council which took place in 1511, called the Conciliabulum Pisanum, inspired by Louis XII and Maximilian I as a tactic to weaken Julius, and which threatened Julius II with deposition. Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere) (1443-1513), Pope 1503-1513. Julius II, Motu proprio.jpg 2,915 × 1,926; 4 MB Lapide a Giulio II a Finale Emilia.jpg 1,429 × 956; 307 KB Latin inscription of Pope Julius II - Sant'Apollinare in Classe - … The same year, he had an illegitimate daughter named Felice della Rovere from Lucrezia Normanni, whose marriage to Bernardino de Cupis he arranged shortly after. The papacy gained control of Parma and Piacenza in central Italy. Yet Machiavelli and his methods would not outlast Julius' Papacy. He was created cardinal by Pope Paul III in 1536, filled several important legations, and was elected pope on the 7th of February 1550, despite the opposition of Charles V , whose enmity he had incurred as president of the council of Trent. On 22 August 1476 he founded the Collegium de Ruvere in Avignon. "[page needed] Julius, who modeled himself after his namesake Caesar, would personally lead his army across the Italian peninsula under the imperial war-cry, "Drive out the barbarians." It was reported that France had deposited 200,000 ducats into a bank account to promote della Rovere's candidature, while the Republic of Genoa had deposited 100,000 ducats to the same end.  His successor, Pope Leo X, along with Emperor Maximilian, would re-establish the status quo ante bellum by ratifying the treaties of Brussels and Noyon in 1516; France regained control of Milan after the victory of Francis I at the Battle of Marignano, and Spain was recognized as the direct ruler of Naples. Della Rovere, however, had enemies, both because of the influence he had exercised over Pope Sixtus IV and because of his French sympathies. Oxford University Press.  The King entered Rome with his army on 31 December 1495, with Giuliano della Rovere riding on one side and Cardinal Ascanio Sforza riding on the other. But urgent reports arrived from the King of Hungary that the Ottoman Sultan was threatening Italy. Marino Sanuto, I, p. 555. Julius II personally led the Papal armed forces at the victorious Siege of Mirandola and, despite subsequent defeats and great losses at the Battle of Ravenna, he ultimately forced the French troops of Louis XII to retreat behind the Alps after the arrival of Swiss mercenaries from the Holy Roman Empire. 486; 108. After Venice crumbled against the combined forces and was ready to negotiate with Julius II, he withdrew from the League and set the terms to free the Venetians from previously imposed bans. Pastor, VI, pp. His costly concern with the arts and politics alienated northern Europe and helped pave the way for the Reformation.  Giuliano was educated by his uncle, Fr. Julius II brought the Catholic Ferdinand II of Aragon into the alliance, declaring Naples a papal fief and promising a formal investiture. Joannes Burchard. In 1506, Julius II established the Vatican Museums and initiated the rebuilding of the St. Peter's Basilica. 26. Cardinal Raffaele Riario, the Dean of the College of Cardinals and Bishop of Ostia, presided. 65-66. Pope Julius II commissioned the rebuilding of St Peter's Basilica, Michelangelo's decoration and full-scale painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and his discerning eye in hiring the artist Raphael as a young man brought numerous improvements to the Vatican. He often treated subordinates and people who worked for him very badly.  Shortly thereafter the sum of 300,000 ecus of gold was received from the French in a subsidy of the war. However, the pope only wore his beard from 27 June 1511 to March 1512, as a sign of mourning at the loss of the city of Bologna by the Papal States. The two dynasties became uneasy allies in the context of papal politics. Thanks for Liking. Soon after becoming the pope, he condemned his predecessor of usurping the papal power by the devil's aid and rendered it impossible for the Borgias to retain power over the Papal States. , Another break in relations between Pope Alexander and Cardinal Giuliano came at the end of 1501 or the beginning of 1502 when Giuliano was transferred from the Bishopric of Bologna to the diocese of Vercelli. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. Pope Julius II. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. From the beginning, Julius II set out to defeat the various powers that challenged his temporal authority; in a series of complicated stratagems, he first succeeded in rendering it impossible for the Borgias to retain their power over the Papal States. He was educated by his uncle Francesco della Rovere, a member of the Fransiscan order, who later became Minister General of the Franciscans before being elected Pope Sixtus IV on August 10, 1471. , Around this time, in 1483, an illegitimate daughter was born, Felice della Rovere. Tell us More.  Guilty of serial simony and pluralism, he held several powerful offices at once: in addition to the archbishopric of Avignon he held no fewer than eight bishoprics, including Lausanne from 1472, and Coutances (1476–1477). He [Alexander VI] desecrated the Holy Church as none before. Pope Julius II was the 216th leader of the Catholic Church and the second among those great men to guide by the papal name of “Julius.” This article seeks to distinguish him from his many papal forebears and successors by focusing on specifics and details of his life and papacy. Once crowned, Julius II proclaimed instead his goal to centralize the Papal States (in large part a patchwork of communes and signorie) and "free Italy from the barbarians". In a second attempt to overthrow the Aragonese monarchy, the Prince of Salerno Antonello II di Sanseverino, on the advice of Antonello Petrucci and Francesco Coppola, gathered together several feudal families belonging to the Guelph faction and supporting the Angevin claim to Naples. On 24 July 1493, Cardinal della Rovere returned to Rome (despite the warnings of Virginius Orsini) and dined with the Pope. In May 1512 a general or ecumenical council, the Fifth Council of the Lateran, was held in Rome. The Archduke of Austria Maximilian I was hostile to France and Venice, and desired to descend in Italy in order to obtain the Papal coronation as Holy Roman Emperor.  Kellogg, Baynes & Smith, continue, a "rivalry had, however, gradually grown up between [della Rovere] and [then-Cardinal] Rodrigo Borgia, and on the death of Innocent VIII in 1492 Borgia by means of a secret agreement and simony with Ascanio Sforza succeeded in being elected by a large majority, under the name of Pope Alexander VI." Matthias Wivel, our Curator of 16th-century Italian paintings, gives a talk about the portrait of Julius II by Raphael. Conradus Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi, sive Summorum pontificum, S.R.E.  Criticism was furthermore made of the sinister influence exerted by his advisor, Francesco Alidosi, whom Julius had made a cardinal in 1505. 336-340; 346-348. , Julius II became Pope in the context of the Italian Wars, a period in which the major powers of Europe fought for primacy in the Italian peninsula. Others suggest that Julius had little sense of humor. After his uncle died in 1484, he influenced the elevation of Cardinal Cibo to the papacy as Innocent VIII, and he presumably also influenced most of the pope's decisions.  Cardinal Giuliano was increasingly alarmed by the powerful position assumed by Cardinal Ascanio Sforza and the Milanese faction in the Court of Alexander VI, and after Christmas Day in December 1492 chose to withdraw to his fortress in the town and diocese of Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber River. Several of Michelangelo's greatest works (including the painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel) were commissioned by Julius. On 1 September 1499 Lodovico Il Moro fled Milan, and on 6 September the city surrendered to the French.  The French writer Philippe de Mornay (1549–1623) accused all Italians of being sodomites, but added specifically: "This horror is ascribed to good Julius.  In an act of overt nepotism he was immediately raised to the cardinalate on 16 December 1471, and assigned the same titular church as that formerly held by his uncle, San Pietro in Vincoli. , On 31 August 1492 the new Pope, Alexander VI, held a consistory in which he named six cardinal legates, one of whom was Giuliano della Rovere, who was appointed Legate in Avignon. 492-493. The Lateran Council that formed the Holy League marked a high point in his personal success.  Ferrante reacted by seizing the fiefs of the barons, and, when the two parties met to negotiate a settlement, Ferrante had them arrested, and eventually executed. , The Bull entitled Ea quae pro bono pacis, issued on 24 January 1506, confirmed papal approval of the mare clausum policy being pursued by Spain and Portugal amid their explorations, and approved the changes of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas to previous papal bulls. However, he never neglected his duties as the spiritual head of the Church, and heard mass almost daily and often celebrated it himself. Pastor VI, p. 440. He is also remembered as a patron of the arts who hired Michelangelo to repaint the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel, commissioned four exquisitely painted rooms from Raphael, and commissioned Bramante for the construction of a new basilica in place of old St. Peter's. Giuliano Della Rovere thenceforth took the name of his fourth-century predecessor, Julius I, and was pope for nine years, from 1503 to 1513. He issued a strict bull against simony at papal elections; condemned the heresy of Piero de Lucca; instituted Capella Julia, a school for ecclesiastical chant; and convoked the Fifth Lateran Council to eradicate abuses from the church. 762, 768–772. Pastor, VI, p. 431. Cesare Borgia, Duke of Romagna, shared the same fate and lost his possessions. His rivals included Cardinal Ardicio della Porta and Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, both patronized by the Milanese. Following the death of Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, he was promoted to suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia in 1483. Please Like other favourites! The richest was Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, at 30,000 ducats. Pastor, VI, p. 209, citing the original sources and scholarship. His remains lay alongside his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV, but were later desecrated during the Sack of Rome in 1527. With the French out of Italy and Spain recognizing Naples as a papal fief, a Congress was held in Mantua by Julius II to declare the liberation of the peninsula. On the Vigil of Pentecost in May 1512, Pope Julius, aware that he was seriously ill and that his health was failing, despite comments on the part of some cardinals about how well he looked, remarked to Paris de Grassis, "They are flattering me; I know better; my strength diminishes from day to day and I cannot live much longer.  Perugia voluntarily surrendered in March 1507 to direct control, as it had always been within the Papal States; it was in these endeavors he had enlisted French mercenaries. Eugène Müntz, "Giuliano da San Gallo et Les monuments antiques du midi de la France au XV, Mark J Zucker, Raphael and the Beard of Pope Julius II, pp.525-527, Carlotta, the daughter of the King of Naples, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Above all, the notion of Julius II for barbarian hostilty seems to have been a genuine inspiration...the Pope's desired derived...from the Pope's harbouring an ancient grudge against them, or because over the years his suspicion grew into hate, or because he desired 'the glory of being the man who liberated Italy from the barbarians', https://archive.org/details/hierarchiacathol02eubeuoft, History of the Great Reformation of the Sixteenth Century in Germany, "Papal Politics and Raphael's Stanza Della Segnatura as Papal Golden Age", Sermon Cardinal Sodano on the pontificate of Pope Julius II, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Julius_II&oldid=999351888, Roman Catholic prince-bishops in the Holy Roman Empire, Major Penitentiaries of the Apostolic Penitentiary, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with incomplete citations from May 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2020, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from March 2012, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles containing unlinked shortened footnotes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Rafaello della Rovere and Theodora Manerola, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 19:12. 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